This is a study of 640 14-year-old children who were followed from 1965 through 1990. It was done to determine risk factors for the development of low back pain in adulthood. Low back pain occurred during the growth period and family history was both associated with an increased risk. The lifetime reverence for back pain was 84% for this cohort. The proportion of subjects having radiographic abnormalities was 36% and yet this was associated with an increased incidence of back pain in adulthood. Interestingly, the investigators did find an increased incidence of mental problems such as fear or depression in the group of patients with radiographic changes in the T11-L2 area.
Harreby M, Neergaard K, Hesselsoe G, Kjer J. Spine 1995 (Nov 1);20 (21): 2298-2302