A retrospective analysis of Erb's palsy cases and their relation to birth weight and trauma at delivery. Graham EM; Forouzan I; Morgan MA. J Matern Fetal Med. 1997 (Jan-Feb);6 (1): 1-5
The incidence of Erb's palsy in our population is similar to that of other reported studies and has remained unchanged over the past 30 years, even as our cesarean rate has risen from 5% to 20%. In other words, there is as much force used during c-section deliveries as with vaginal deliveries. Facial nerve palsy in the newborn: incidence and outcome. Falco NA; Eriksson E. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1990 (Jan);85 (1): 1-4
Among 44,292 infants born between October 1, 1982 and July 31, 1987, there were 92 recorded cases of congenital seventh nerve palsy. Of these '81 were acquired' for an incidence of 1.8 per 1,000. Seventy-four of the 81 (91%) were associated with forceps delivery.
Klumpke's birth palsy. Does it really exist? al-Qattan MM; Clarke HM; Curtis CG. J Hand Surg [Br]. 1995 (Feb);20 (1): 19-23
Erb's palsy is the most common obstetric brachial plexus injury followed by total plexus palsy. The distribution of Klumpke's birth palsy with modern obstetric practice is unknown. Erb/Duchenne's palsy: a consequence of fetal macrosomia and method of delivery. JR; Benedetti TJ. Obstet Gynecol. 1986 (Dec);68 (6): 784-788
When birth weight was controlled for in the analysis, midforceps vacuum, and low forceps remained significantly associated with the Erb's palsy. These data demonstrate a high risk for serious birth injury associated with instrumental midpelvic delivery.