Contributed by Backpack Safety America
THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN ADOLESCENT HEAD-ON-NECK POSTURE, BACKPACK WEIGHT, AND ANTHROPOMETRIC FEATURES, Grimmer KA, Williams MT, Gill TK Spine 1999 Nov 1;24(21):2262-7
Synopsis: Students’ posture measured with and without school backpack. Analysis taken per school year to account for specific load-carrying requirements and spinal development associated with the age of the group.
Conclusion: Significant change in craniovertebral angle at every year level. Greatest change found among youngest subjects.
Subjects: 985 students, ages 12-18
ADOLESCENT STANDING POSTURAL RESPONSE TO BACKPACK LOADS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, Grimmer K, Dansie B, Milanese S, Pirunsan U, Trott P BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002;3:10
Synopsis: Combined different backpack loads (3, 5, & 10% of body weight) with positions (backpack at T7, T12, or L3) – posture was quantified from the anatomical point under each condition.
Conclusion: Highest range of displacement was with backpack centered between shoulder blades – least amount of displacement with the center at waist/hip. No evidence for 10% “rule of thumb” as there was no evidence of a different type of postural response to the heaviest load, compared with the lightest.
Subjects: 250 students, age 12-18
BACKPACK USE AS A RISK FACTOR IN CHILDREN’S BACK PAIN, Sheri-Neiss G, Kruse R, Rahman T, Jacobson L, Pelli J Abstract from SRS 2001 Annual Meeting
Synopsis: Prevalence of nonspecific back pain increases dramatically during adolescence – less than 10% in preteens to 50% in 15-16 year-olds. Students completed questionnaire about their health, activities, and backpack use. Height, weight, and backpack weight were obtained.
Conclusion: Statistically significant associations between back pain and backpack use. No significance between backpack weight and back pain, or ratio of backpack weight to body weight.
Subjects: 817 students, age 12-17
INFLUENCE OF CARRYING BOOK BAGS ON GAIT CYCLE AND POSTURE OF YOUTHS, Pascoe DD, Pascoe DE, Want YT, Shim DM, Kim CK Ergonomics 1997 Jun;40(6):631-41
Synopsis: Posture and gait of youth were measured under four conditions: without backpack, one-strap backpack, two-strap backpack, and one-strap athletic bag.
Conclusion: Daily physical stresses associated with carrying book bags on one shoulder significantly alters the posture and gait of youth (book bags and athletic bags).
Subjects: 10 students, ages 11-13
Visit Backpack Safety America website at: www.backpacksafe.com.