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Electronic Fetal Monitoring

The routine use of electronic fetal heart monitoring (EFM) in American obstetrics is an unscientific practice that increases cesarian section without improving outcomes. The overuse of EFM must be challenged as iatrogenic. -- Dr. J. Hughes

The following abstracts were compiled to show parents that this common procedure may not be all that it is made out to be. Even more crtiical is the fact that the use of electronic fetal monitoring may lead to further unnecessary intervention.


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1 A Randomized Trial of Intrapartum Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring Versus Intermittent Auscultation Pathways Magazine
2 Intrapartum Auscultation of the Fetal Heart Rate Pathways Magazine
3 Effects of Electronic Fetal-Heart-Rate Monitoring, As Compared With Periodic Auscultation, on the Neurologic Development of Premature Infants Pathways Magazine
4 Whither Electronic Fetal Monitoring? Pathways Magazine
5 Are Physicians Changing the Way They Practise Obstetrics? Pathways Magazine
6 Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring During Labour--Too Frequent Intervention, Too Little Benefit? Pathways Magazine
7 Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Assessment: Monitoring by Auscultation or Electronic Means Pathways Magazine
8 Fetal Monitoring and Predictions by Clinicians: Observations During a Randomized Clinical Trial in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Pathways Magazine
9 A Randomized Trial of Electronic Fetal Monitoring in Preterm Labor: Mothers' Views Pathways Magazine
10 Do Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitors Improve Delivery Outcomes? Pathways Magazine
11 Electronic Fetal Heart Monitoring, Auscultation, And Neonatal Outcome Pathways Magazine
12 Interobserver Variation in the Assessment of Fetal Heart Rate Recordings Pathways Magazine
13 Electronic Fetal Monitoring: A Canadian Survey Pathways Magazine
14 Auscultated Fetal Heart Rate Accelerations. An Alternative to the Non-Stress Test Pathways Magazine
15 Hospital Setting for Birth and Use of Medical Procedures in Low-Risk Women Pathways Magazine
16 Electronic Fetal Monitoring in the United States in the 1980s Pathways Magazine
17 Routine Electronic Monitoring Of Fetuses Is Challenged in Study Pathways Magazine